Peter Westaway, Ph.D., is chief economist and head of the Investment Strategy Group for Vanguard Asset Management, Limited, Vanguard’s European entity. He meets with clients and writes articles to provide Vanguard’s perspective on economic issues and longer-term investment strategy implications. Mr. Westaway was previously chief economist, Europe, for Nomura International and a senior official at the Bank of England. Mr. Westaway earned a Ph.D. in economics and an M.Phil. in control engineering and operational research from the University of Cambridge, and a B.Sc. in mathematics and economics from the University of York. He is a visiting professor at Queen Mary University of London.